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Communication means sharing information, it can be local or distant. Telecommunication means communication at a distance. Data Communication is the exchange of data between devices via some form of transmission medium, for example wire cable. The potency of Data Communication system depends on three characteristics that are Fundamental:.
Delivery: This is when the message sent by the source System is correctly delivering to the right destination.
Accuracy: The system ought to deliver the message correctly on the destination System, should any information transmitting to one system to another gets altered or changed and the same uncorrected bits are received on the destination system effects in no use to read the message.
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Timeliness: The message must deliver the information in a timely manner. It is useless if the information is transmitted and delivered late to the destination systems.
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Data Communication deals with the following the five network elements:
Message: The message is data or the information to be transmitted or communicated form source system to the address system. This message can be text form, graphic form, audio form or any combination of those forms.
Sender: The sender is the device or source system that sends the message. It could be a computer, phone, work station etc.
Receiver: The receiver is the destination system or device that gets the message from source system or sender device. It might be a computer, workstation, or phone among other things.
Medium: A transmission medium is a physical path through which a message travels from sender device to the receiver device or from the source to destination system.
Protocol: A protocol is set of regulations and rules that govern the data communication. It represents a link establishment which will convey between the source systems and the destination system. The connection might not be made between the source and destination system or between the sender and receiver device without this protocol.
In communicating, representing of information might be in pictures, text, images sound and video. The text is represented as bit patterns, a sequence of bits. Distinct sets of bits patterns have been designed to represent by text symbols known as code.
These data representation follow some standards:
ASCII: The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) developed a code called American Standard code for Information Interchange (ASCII). This code uses 7 bits for each symbol to represent it.
Extended ASCII: This really is just like the ASCII but chooses 1bit more than ASCII code to create size of each pattern 1 byte (8- bits). This Extended ASCII adds zero to form a pattern of 1 byte, for example, 01111111.
UNICODE: This Unicode was developed to understand a variety of languages, since before developed codes only comprehended English. A coalition of hardware and software development is called Unicode. This is 16 bits and can represent up to 65536 symbols.
ISO: This is the International Standardization Organization; they developed a code using a 32 bit pattern. Images and numbers use bit patterns as well, an image is split into matrix of pixels.